9 ISIS loyalists killed in Nangarhar airstrike

At least 9 loyalists of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group were killed in an airstrike in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan.

The local security officials said Saturday that the airstrike was carried out in the vicinity of Achin district but did elaborate further if the airstrike was carried out by the Afghan Air Force or the US forces in Afghanistan.

The officials further added that the airstrike was carried out on Friday and a vehicle belonging to the terrorists was also destroyed.

According to the officials, the local residents did not suffer any casualties in the airstrike.

Nangarhar is among the relatively volatile provinces in eastern Afghanistan where both the Taliban insurgents and militants loyal to ISIS terrorist group are actively operating.

Both the Afghan forces and the US forces in Afghanistan are conducting regular raids against the Taliban insurgents and ISIS loyalist in the districts where they are conducting insurgency activities.

The US forces increased airstrikes against the Taliban insurgents and ISIS loyalists earlier this year after the Obama administration granted a broader role to the American forces.

Abdullah appreciates Pakistan’s $500m commitment, support to Afghan refugees

The Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah has appreciated the Pakistani government for their latest commitment of $500 million in Brussels Conference on Afghanistan and the country’s support to the Afghan refugees.

During a meeting with the Minister of States and Frontier Regions of Pakistan, Lt. Gen. (Rtd) Abdul Quadir Baloch in Geneva, Abdullah appreciated Pakistan’s generous hosting of Afghan refugees for the past four decades.

Abdullah and Baloch discussed the return of Afghan refugees from Pakistan during a quadripartite meeting on Afghan refugees, which included Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and the UNHCR.

The Afghan Chief Executive added that there was a clear decision by the Government of Afghanistan, that the Afghan refugees should return to their country and all efforts were being made for their sustainable resettlement in Afghanistan.

“He also appreciated Pakistan’s announcement of US Dollars 500 million for Afghanistan at the recently concluded Brussels Conference,”Abdullah was quoted as saying in a statement released by the Ministry fo Foreign Affairs of Pakistan.

The statement further added that Minister Abdul Quadir Baloch, while referring to the decisions taken by the last Tripartite meeting on Refugees held in Pakistan, pointed out that Pakistan was faithfully implementing these decisions.

“The Afghan refugees were our brothers and sisters and therefore we had a particular interest in their return to Afghanistan with dignity. We shall follow this principle in the return of Afghan refugees currently taking place,” he added.

Pak envoy links peace in Afghanistan to resolution of Kashmir issue

A Pakistani envoy has reportedly linked peace in Afghanistan to the resolution of Kashmir issue as the Afghan officials are pessimistic regarding Islamabad’s honesty to bring the Taliban group to negotiations table.

Pakistan Prime Minister’s special envoy on Kashmir Senator Mushahid Hussain Syed has said a solution to both is required for peace and they cannot be “compartmentalised”.

“Road to peace in Kabul lies in Kashmir in the sense that when you talk of peace, you cannot compartmentalise peace, you can’t segregate a section… ok you can have peace in Kabul and let Kashmir burn. That is not going to happen,” Syed was quoted as saying in a report by Economic Times.

Syed who is the chairman of the Pakistan Senate’s Defence and Defence Production Committee was speaking during an interaction at Washington-based think-tank Stimson Centre.

“So you (US) talk of a comprehensive peace settlement, so let the people of South Asia not be hostage to the hostility of the past. Let them move forward,” Syed added.

Shezra Mansab, a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, as Special Envoys of Pakistan Prime Minister on Kashmir, said “Our core issue this time is Kashmir and no peace can prevail in the region, if this issue is not solved. It is an international dispute. It is not an internal problem. The stakes are very high now, we are nuclear neighbours so we need to have peace on the issue of Kashmir and then rest of the things can be solved.”

This comes as the Afghan officials earlier said that they will not expect Pakistan to help revive the Afghan peace talks with the Taliban group.

Efforts in the framework of Quadrilateral Coordination Group consisting of Afghanistan, Pakistan, US and China failed after the Taliban group rejected to participate in peace talks and announced their spring offensive.

The Afghan officials criticized Pakistan for remaining reluctant to act against the leadership councils of Taliban and Haqqani terrorist network based in Peshawar and Quetta cities of Pakistan.

Nokia mobile phone save man’s life in Afghanistan by stopping bullet

An old Nokia mobile has saved a man’s life in Afghanistan after a stopping a bullet to penetrate the man’s body, it has been reported.

The news and incredible images regarding the incident became viral after the former Nokai executive Peter Skillman shared it through his Twitter account, according toMailOnline.

“A Nokia phone I worked on a few years ago saved the life of a man in Afghanistan last week,” Skillman said in a Twitter post.

Launched in 2013, the phone appears to be a Nokia 301 but no further reports are available regarding to explain exactly how the bullet came to be lodged in the phone.

Some have claimed that the photo may not be entirely genuine, especially given Mr Skillman’s affiliation with the phone maker.

However, Gary Cutlack at Gizmodo, has said “There’s a chance it might not be a genuine thing and could be a stunt designed to boost Nokia sales in war-torn countries.”

This is not the first report of a mobile phone stopping a bullet but a soldier’s life was saved when a flying shrapnel was stopped by his iPhone in Afghanistan in early 2014.

According to reports, the iPhone 5s was in Staff Sgt. Shaun Frank’s pocket when he came face-to-face with a teenage bomber in Afghanistan who triggered a bomb filled with ball bearings.

2 US soldiers wounded in an explosion in East of Afghanistan

At least two US soldiers were wounded in an explosion in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan today, the US Forces in Afghanistan (USFOR-A) said.

The incident took place after a vehicle of the US forces struck an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) planted by the militants.

“2 US troops were injured in #Nangarhar today after their vehicle hit an IED. No other casualties resulted,” USFOR-A and the NATO-led Resolute Support (RS) mission said.

No further details were given regarding the identities of the soldiers who sustained injuries in the attack.

The US forces in Afghanistan and the NATO-led Resolute Support (RS) mission generally do not disclose identities of the coalition forces casualties in Afghanistan, saying the relevant authorities will disclose additional information regarding the casualties.

This comes as a US soldier lost his life in a similar attack in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan last week.

The Afghan forces as well as the US forces based in Afghanistan are regularly conducting counter-terrorism operations to root out the loyalists of the terror group who are attempting to expand foothold in the country.

In the meantime, the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) launched a major operation in districts under the control of ISIS loyalists around two months ago.

The operations were launched amid concerns that the loyalists of the terror group are attempting to expand foothold in the country.

Premature suicide blast leave 3 civilians wounded in South of Afghanistan

At least three civilians were wounded in a premature suicide blast in southern Zabul province of Afghanistan this afternoon, local officials said.

The incident took place in Qalat city, the provincial capital of southern Zabul province of Afghanistan.

Provincial police chief Ghulam Jilani Farahi said the suicide bomber was looking to target the security forces but his suicide attack vest went off prematurely before he reach his target.

He said an investigation is underway regarding the incident but no group has so far claimed responsibility behind the incident.

Zabul is among the relatively volatile provinces in southern Afghanistan where the anti-government armed militant groups including the Taliban insurgents are actively operating in a number of its districts.

The latest attack plot by the militants to target the security forces comes as the Taliban-led insurgency has been rampant across the country during the recent months.

The Taliban militants have launched numerous attacks in key provinces and cities of the country including capital Kabul after they launched their spring offensive in mid-April this year.

Suicide attack leaves 4 civilians wounded in Nangarhar province

At least four civilians were wounded in a suicide attack in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan on Saturday afternoon, local officials said.

The incident took place in the vicinity of Behsud district around 3:00 pm local time after a suicide bomber targeted the Afghan special forces.

Provincial governor’s spokesman Ataullah Khogyani confirmed that the incident took place in Akhundzada area and at least four civilians were wounded in the attack.

No group including the Taliban militants has so far claimed responsibility behind the incident.

This comes as an explosion targeted the US forces in Chaparhar district earlier this afternoon leaving at least two US soldiers wounded.

The US Forces in Afghanistan (USFOR-A) confirmed the incident and said two US service members were wounded in the attack.

The Taliban militants group claimed responsibility behind the attack on US forces but there are no words from any militant group regarding the second attack.

Nangarhar is among the relatively volatile provinces in eastern Nangarhar province where the Taliban insurgents and the militants loyal to the Islamic State of Syria and Iraq (ISIS) terrorist group are actively operating in a number of its districts.

Afghan army helicopter shot down in north of Afghanistan

A helicopter of the Afghan National Army (ANA) forces was shot down by the Taliban militants in northern Baghlan province of Afghanistan.

Local officials in Baghlan have said the helicopter was shot down as it was trying to provide logistics support to the ground forces in Dand-e-Ghori, close to the provincial capitalof Pul-e-Khumri city.

The officials further added that the check post to which the helicopter was trying to deliver weapons is under siege by the Taliban insurgents.

There are no exact reports regarding the casualties as a result of the incident but preliminary reports suggest at least on board the helicopter have lost their lives.

Baghlan is among the relatively volatile provinces in northern Afghanistan where the Taliban insurgents are actively operating in a number of its districts.

The Taliban militants have intensified attacks on several key nothern provinces including Baghlan and the strategic Kunduz province during the recent months.

The Afghan forces launched a major operation to clear Dand-e-Ghori from the Taliban presence earlier this year as the group was trying to create safe havens for their spring offensive.

Afghanistan’s Ahmad Wali Hotak knocks out his Russian opponent

The Afghan Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) fighter Ahmad Wali Hotak knocked out his Russian opponent during a major fight in Moscow last night.

Hotak knocked Ivan Kozachenko during the first round of the match with back to back punches and knees by starting the fight aggressively.

He congratulated the Afghan nation following his impressive win and thanked his sensiors for their efforts to organize international matches for him.

The match was hosted by The Fight Night in Moscow, the capital city of Russia.

Hotak received his first medal in Mixed Martial Art fights in 2009 and his latest fight came almost four months after he defeated one of Russia’s MMA fighters.

According to the professional record of Hotak, he has so far secured victories in at least 20 MMA matches.

This comes as the another Afghan MMA fighter Baz Mohammad Mubariz defeated his Kyrgyz opponent during the Octagon Fighting Sensation (OFS 9) in Kyrgyzstan on Thursday night.

Ghani dismiss public health ministry officials during surprise visit

President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani has dismissed some officials in the Ministry of Public Health during a surprise visit to the compound of ministry on Saturday.

The Office of the President, ARG Palace, said President Ghani ordered to dismiss the high level officials of the ministry who have remained negligent on their duty.

He also announced that those ministry employees who have been illegally appointed are dismissed, emphasizing that the recruitment of the employees should be based on the law.

President Ghani also asked the ministry officials to present a one month reform plan in the light of assessment and improvement of hospitals.

Deputy public health minister Ahmad Jan Naeem said the current hospitals in Kabul can not respond to the people considering the growing population of the capital and old equipment used in the hospitals.

He proposed to the President that new hospitals should be built in the capital and only Wazir Akbar Khan is providing orthopedic services and the Indhira Gandhi hospital provide services to the children which are not sufficient.

Naeem however said the public health sector also had achievements including the establishment of heart surgery section for the children.

President Ghani instructed for an audit of the ministry and the vacant positions should be announced in a bid to ensure fair recruitment of the employees in the ministry.

34 ISIS loyalists killed in separate drone strikes in Afghanistan

At least 34 loyalists of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group were killed in separate airstrikes in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan.

According to the security authorities, the airstrikes were conducted in different parts of the province, including Nazian and Haska Mina districts.

The officials further added that the loyalists of the terror group were targeted in the airstrikes on Saturday night.

At least 31 of the militants were killed in Haroon Baba area of Haska Mina district, the officials, said adding that 3 others were killed in a separate airstrike in Nazian district.

This comes as at least 9 loyalists of the terror group were killed in a similar airstrike in Achin district on Friday.

Nangarhar is among the relatively volatile provinces in eastern Afghanistan where both the Taliban insurgents and militants loyal to ISIS terrorist group are actively operating.

Both the Afghan forces and the US forces in Afghanistan are conducting regular raids against the Taliban insurgents and ISIS loyalist in the districts where they are conducting insurgency activities.

The US forces increased airstrikes against the Taliban insurgents and ISIS loyalists earlier this year after the Obama administration granted a broader role to the American forces.

Tyson Fury: World heavyweight champion will return to ring, says uncle

World heavyweight champion Tyson Fury is prepared to relinquish his WBA and WBO belts and could return to training in six months, says his uncle.

The Briton, 28, has withdrawn from his rematch with Ukraine's Wladimir Klitschko, scheduled for 29 October, because of mental health issues.

"It's driven him to despair," said Peter Fury, who is also his trainer, on BBC Radio 5 live's Sportsweek.

The boxer has said he was taking cocaine to help deal with depression.

The British Boxing Board of Control (BBBofC) is meeting on 12 October when it will look at Fury's admission, which was made during an interview with Rolling Stone magazine.

The WBO and WBA - the two organisations with which Fury holds heavyweight titles - can strip the unbeaten Englishman of the title.

"I see him being back in the gym in March or April. He'll resume his career," added Fury's uncle.

The Englishman, who has not fought since beating Klitschko last November, postponed the original rematch in June.

He beat Ukraine's Klitschko last November to win the WBA, IBF and WBO titles. Within two weeks Fury was stripped of the IBF title because he was unable to fight mandatory challenger Vyacheslav Glazkov.

On 3 October, Fury tweeted to say boxing was the "saddest thing" he had taken part in and suggested he was retiring from the sport, before retracting his decision a few hours later.

'Pushed to the edge'

Peter Fury gave an insight on Sportsweek into his nephew's current state of mind, saying he was being treated for a form of manic depression.

"He has everything to live for but it seems he is on a self-destruct mission," he said. "I don't think he has got a drug addiction at all. Whatever he has taken will be a result of the depression.

"The titles shouldn't be held up. While Tyson is out for medical reasons, the titles should be freed up.

Boeing, Airbus throttle back output of big jets

NEW YORK/PARIS/TOKYO -- The world's two biggest passenger-aircraft makers are reducing production of their largest planes, a response to sluggish emerging-market demand that could mean trouble for Japanese suppliers.

Further production cuts for Boeing's 777 may be ahead if orders remain low, CEO Dennis Muilenburg suggested at a Sept. 14 event for investors.


The U.S. manufacturer needs 40-50 orders annually to sustain production levels for the aircraft, but only eight have been received so far this year, Muilenburg told the audience. Output is already set to drop to seven planes per month next year from 8.3 currently.

The twin-aisle 777 forms part of many carriers' fleets, including those of Japan Airlines and domestic rival All Nippon Airways, part of ANA Holdings. Orders for the jetliner rose from 113 in 2013 to 283 the following year, only to plunge to 58 in 2015. Boeing looks to steer customers toward the newest member of the 777 family, the fuel-efficient 777X, initial delivery of which is expected as early as 2020.

Boeing's larger 747, a plane almost synonymous with the jumbo jet, has fallen on even harder times. Orders went from 12 in 2013 to zero the next year, with only two sold in 2015. Boeing has said that ending 747 production, which it cut from one per month to 0.5 in September, eventually may make economic sense.

With cheaper crude oil lessening demand for fuel-saving upgrades, more Boeing customers have chosen to continue flying older planes, a person familiar with the company said. At the same time, Middle Eastern and African airlines have put off orders of new jets amid uncertainty over the economic outlook, this person added.

Crude oil's price rebounded sharply on last week's agreement by OPEC members for a coordinated production cut -- the first in eight years, if it happens. But even if the cartel does lower output, it may not be enough to solve the problem of global oversupply, analysts say. For the passenger-jet market, the fundamentals look unlikely to change soon.

Small is big

Boeing rival Airbus is flying into the same headwinds. Singapore Airlines said last month it would not extend leases on some of the A380s in its fleet. The carrier appears put off by the double-decker jumbo's high maintenance costs.

Airbus is reducing production of its A380 jet.

For Airbus, the airline's decision marks a stinging loss of business from a valuable customer. Faced with poor demand from other buyers, the European aerospace champion had said in July it would reduce annual A380 production from last year's 27 units to 12 by 2018.

Ranking Every U.S. President By Net Worth

There’s no doubt about it: being the U.S. president is a hard and often thankless job. Richard Nixon famously said, “Scrubbing floors and emptying bedpans has as much dignity as the Presidency.”

But being president also has amazing perks (Air Force One!), and most presidents have been financially well-off. In fact, the average net worth of a U.S. president ($62 million) is more than 200 times the average net worth of a U.S. adult ($301,000). It pays to be president.

Using the most recent data from 24/7 Wall St., InsideGov ranked every U.S. president by net worth, from lowest to highest. 24/7 Wall St. relied primarily on historical records to value each president’s assets and adjusted all numbers for inflation. They included factors such as land and property, income, inheritance, and book royalties in their calculation.

Overall, presidential wealth has gone through several notable trends. Many of the earlier presidents made their fortunes before entering the White House, largely through land speculation. In contrast, many of the modern presidents came into office modestly wealthy, but significantly boosted their finances through subsequent book deals and public speaking.

*Note: the rankings are 1-43 because Grover Cleveland was president twice. All values are expressed in 2010 dollars and adjusted for inflation.

Russian Billionaire Gets Green Light for Upper East Side Mega-Mansion

Good things come to those who wait, apparently — at least in regards to the construction of mega-mansions by Russian billionaires.

After ruling against his original plans to combine three homes into an 18,255-square-foot Upper East Side mansion — with a 30 foot backyard and a swimming pool in the basement — in April, the Landmarks Preservation Commission on Tuesday approved new plans submitted by Roman Abramovich, who has a net worth of $9.3 billion and owns Chelsea F.C.

MORE: Controversial U.K. Billionaire Profits $15 Million on Miami Mansion

According to real estate website 6sqft, the revised plan from architect Steven Wang means that there will no longer be dramatic changes to the facades of the properties and that they will not look like one single home from outside.

Mr. Abramovich can now go ahead and create a mega-mansion out of the rowhouses at 11-15 East 75th Street between Fifth and Madison avenues, which are worth $78 million. He purchased the first of the three houses back in January 2015.

Once complete, the newly combined home will be one of the largest in Manhattan and brokers speculated that it could add around $50 million to the value of the property, although no Manhattan townhouse has ever changed hands above the $100 million mark.

MORE: Manhattan Townhouse of Former Urban Outfitters CEO Is a Fashionable Renovation

This is not the first time 49-year-old Abramovich has faced opposition from preservationists to his home improvement ambitions. In London, it took him three years to win approval to create a mega-mansion in the city’s exclusive Kensington neighborhood.

Michael Bloomberg, another billionaire, and the former mayor of New York City, has been trying to create a mega-mansion on East 79th Street on the Upper East Side since the 1980s. He has been buying properties to create one big home, but is not quite there yet. He still needs one more property.

Donald Trump's UK fan club

There can be few beliefs which unite Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn.

However, there is one political bogeyman they both seem to loathe - each has laid into Donald Trump with the kind of language usually reserved for Third World despots, or criminals at the far end of the felony spectrum.

Mr Corbyn described Mr Trump's beliefs as "an affront to common humanity", while Mr Johnson joked that he would avoid parts of New York, in case he bumped into Mr Trump while there.

Such a consensus could leave you thinking there is anti-Trump unanimity in Britain, that his brand of populist, no-holds-barred rhetoric may play well in the Midwest, but that it has no place in, for example, the Midlands.

It is a suggestion which angers those Brits who are in fact hoping for a Trump victory and it also confirms their view that the media and political establishment are biased against anyone who challenges their own cosy consensus.

"Trump shoots from the hip, not like a regular politician," Lee Waters tells me. "It's quite refreshing."

We are sitting in a Nottingham pub, where Lee and his friend, Fran Loi, seem relieved that a journalist wants to hear why they find Mr Trump appealing.

Both are UKIP activists and both stood unsuccessfully as UKIP candidates in the last general election. They believe Mr Trump is being subjected to unfair criticism of a kind that their own party suffered.

"It doesn't matter what he says, he seems to be vilified," says Fran, who particularly approves of Mr Trump's attitude to Russia. "He says he's going to work with Vladimir Putin, whereas John Kerry wants to cut ties with Russia. We don't want a Cold War."

Lee is attracted by Mr Trump's stand on immigration: "If you don't know who the people are who are coming in, you don't know if they are good guys or bad guys. He wants strong controls."

Donald Trump's links to UKIP were brought into focus in August, when he was joined on stage by Nigel Farage at a rally in Mississippi. And there has been repeated speculation that the interim UKIP leader is offering campaign advice to the Trump team, with reports this week that Mr Farage would be a personal guest of Mr Trump at the next candidates' debate.

Wayne Rooney: Booed by fans, backed by boss – is England captain's time up?

Rooney's worth to England was subjected to another forensic examination in the build-up to Southgate's first match in charge - and the 30-year-old was given a strong vote of confidence by the new manager.

Southgate sympathised with the sole focus on Rooney and admitted he could not understand the audible frustration of England's fans when he shot wildly off target near the end.

He said: "It's fascinating to get an insight into his world over the last 10 days. Every debate seems to focus on him. The onus on him is enormous, the criticism of him is, at times, unfair and yet he ploughs on and plays with pride and represents his country with pride."

Southgate compared Rooney to long-term England servants such as John Terry, Frank Lampard and Ashley Cole as he added: "They kept turning out and really put themselves on the line. Some other players have not put themselves forward at those moments and withdrawn from squads when the going has got tough.

"Those guys are the people that really desperately wanted to play for England again and again and again and put their necks on the block. Wayne falls into that category."

Southgate's faith was clear as Rooney was kept on as captain and started against Malta, and all the indications are that he will keep his place in the next qualifier in Slovenia on Tuesday.

The Manchester United man may not be the force he once was but he is a player and personality who never hides irrespective of any personal struggles for form and his determination to always be involved was in evidence once more at Wembley.

This was, however, another indifferent performance that once again gave the impression that Rooney is increasingly being shoe-horned into England's plans rather than acting as a fulcrum for a manager's policy.

Here Rooney, who is 31 later this month, was operating in a deep-lying midfield role spraying "Hollywood" passes left and right to the flanks but not providing any killer creativity, other than two shots which brought saves from Malta's heroic keeper Andrew Hogg.

A Tuareg militant leader has been killed in a car explosion in northern Mali.

Cheick Ag Aoussa was the number two in the High Council for the Unity of Azawad, one of many armed groups in the country.


The blast occurred just 300 metres from the UN base where he had been meeting with French and UN troops in Kidal. One security source said the death was the result of running over a land mine, however, one witness said he had been close when he saw the car blow up, and the explosion came from inside not under the car.

The incident is likely to further provoke tensions between rival pro and anti-government groups of ethnic Tuaregs in Kidal.

Sporadic fighting has continued in the area, despite the siging of a UN-backed peace deal in 2015. Aoussa’s group broke ties with a group of Al-Qaeda linked extremists, who continue to carry out attacks on peacekeepers and Malian troops.

Tiny machines win chemistry Nobel prize

The 2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been awarded for the development of the world's smallest machines.

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa will share the 8m kronor (£727,000) prize for the design and synthesis of machines on a molecular scale.

They were named at a press conference in Sweden.

The machines conceived by today's laureates are a thousand times thinner than a strand of hair.

They could slip inside the human body to deliver drugs from within - for instance, applying pharmaceuticals directly to cancer cells.

This field of nanotechnology could also yield applications in the design of smart materials.



The prize recognises their success in linking molecules together to design everything from motors to a car and muscles on a tiny scale.

"They have mastered motion control at the molecular scale," said Olof Ramström, from the Nobel Committee.

Reacting to the award, Prof Feringa said: "I don't know what to say, I'm shocked. And my second remark was: 'I'm a bit emotional about it'."

Donna Nelson, president of the American Chemical Society (ACS) said she was "thrilled" by the Nobel Committee's decision.

"It's wonderful. I've done work in nanoscience for a while - though not in micromachines - so I think I have enough background to appreciate the difficulty of the work they did and its magnificence," she told the BBC News website.

The professor of chemistry at the University of Oklahoma added: "I'm also interested in the public perception of science and this topic is perfect for capturing the imagination of schoolchildren."



"The world is so aware of the Nobel Prizes and they influence the research. It will make the area blossom; more scientists will move into the area and it will attract more funding. You can expect the applications to appear much more rapidly now."

The celebrated physicist Richard Feynman is often credited with inspiring the concept of molecular machines.

In a lecture at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1959, titled "There's plenty of room at the bottom", he considered the possibility of the direct manipulation of matter at the atomic scale.

It was also in this lecture that he introduced the idea of "swallowing the surgeon".

How the street light has been given a hi-tech makeover

Next time you're out after dark, spare a thought for the humble street light. It's not so humble anymore.

Not only are light bulbs getting sharper and more energy efficient as they are upgraded to LEDs, but they increasingly help fight crime, promote safe cycling and even protect turtles.

That's because street lights are also becoming the eyes and ears of "smart" cities.

Lamp posts double as data collectors, communicating with a central control system that makes automated decisions about when they are on, for how long, and the brightness.

Their supporters say the benefits include safer streets, calmer roads and considerable cost savings.

In a data-driven world it makes sense to adapt existing street furniture for this purpose, says smart cities expert Dr Theo Tryfonas, from Bristol University's Faculty of Engineering.

"It's better than acquiring boxes and hardware," he says. "There needs to be a shift in our mentality towards utilities. We have electricity, water - the fourth or fifth utility should be information."